|Mercury||Venus||Our Earth||Mars||Jupiter||Saturn||Uranus||Neptune||Pluto and beyond|
Painting by Don Dixon, Cosmographica
Exploring Jupiter’s Clouds
Cloudscapes of ammonia ice crystals swirl through Jupiter’s hydrogen atmosphere. They ride on currents from deep in the planet.
Worlds of Fire and Ice
Dozens of moons orbit Jupiter like planets around a star. The inner ones are the source of the planet’s thin, dusty rings. The four largest moons range from a ﬁery volcano world to one with deep oceans of liquid water.
This little moon is the most active world we know. Molten sulfur lava ﬂows across the surface and volcanoes vent sulfur gas.
Europa is Jupiter’s water world. Its smooth ice layer forms a shell over a deep, salty ocean that oozes slush onto the frozen surface.
The heavily cratered crust of Callisto hides layers of rock mixed with ice. A salty liquid ocean lies over a compressed ice-rock core.
Beneath its surface, this moon is a mix of rock and ice. Ganymede’s icy crust is split by grooves and ridges and littered with impact craters.
Planets with atmospheres generate storms. We are familiar with the weather systems that can disrupt life on Earth, but the outer planets also have very active weather. Each of the gas giants is heated from deep inside. That heat energy escapes through the atmosphere, where high-speed winds spurred by the planet’s rapid rotation stir up huge storms that whirl through turbulent cloud layers.